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New articles for vol 3 (2015) and Issue 2 will be published soon

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Upcoming Articles:

Anti-Idiotype Antibody against Pre-Membrane-Specific Antibody as an Adjunct to Current Dengue Vaccination Strategy
By Andrew W. Taylor-Robinson

Dengue is a rapidly emerging vector-borne viral disease of humans transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Dengue viruses are divided into five antigenically distinct serotypes, DENV-1 to -5. The disease is endemic in over 130 countries, placing almost half of the world’s population at risk. Clinical disease presents as either a mild self-limiting infection or severe complications. Recovery from primary infection by one serotype provides life-long immunity against reinfection by that particular serotype whereas with subsequent infections by other serotypes the risk of developing severe dengue is increased. In contrast to previous understanding that immature dengue virus particles are non-infective it was shown recently that they become highly infectious in the presence of antibodies raised to the pre-membrane protein, prM, of the virion. While no licensed dengue treatment is currently available, several prototype vaccines are being evaluated in clinical studies. Most of these vaccine candidates contain native dengue prM, the presence of which can have the opposite effect to that desired by making immature dengue particles infective. This occurs through a mechanism of prM-specific antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. Hence, in order to safeguard patient welfare when designing future dengue vaccine constructs, provision of another anti-idiotype antibody that binds to and blocks the pathogen-activating region of anti-prM antibody, thus rendering it inactive, should be considered as an adjunct therapy. This strategy would have a potentially significant benefit by reducing cases of secondary infection, which is the major cause of dengue morbidity and mortality.

Effect of pre-operative breast biopsy type on frozen margin status and surgical treatment of breast cancer patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery
By Woo-Gyeong Kim and JungSun Lee

We evaluated the impact of pre-operative biopsy types on interpreting frozen resection margins. We included 301 patients who underwent breast conserving therapy (BCT). During operation, we evaluated the frozen biopsy for resection margin status, and if a positive resection margin was found, re-excision was performed. The following factors were evaluated for correlation with initial frozen margins, re-excision rate, and final operation method: mean age, histologic grade, histology, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), estrogen receptor (ER) status and biopsy type: excisional, vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) or needle biopsy. A total of 265 patients (88.0%) had negative frozen resection margins, and 36 patients (12%) had positive frozen margins. For patients who underwent needle biopsy, 10.5% (23/219) had positive frozen margins compared with 14.0% (8/57) for excisional biopsy and 20.0% (5/25) for VABB. HG (p=0.002), mean age (p=0.04), histologic type (p<0.001), and number of metastatic lymph node (p<0.001) were significantly correlated with frozen resection margins. In a multivariate analysis, however, only histologic type (p=0.001) was significantly correlated with frozen resection margins. The rate of re-excision was 20% for patients diagnosed with VABB, versus 8.2% with needle biopsy and 8.8% with excisional biopsy (p=0.08). Immediate reconstruction was found more frequently in patients diagnosed by VABB (12.0%) than core needle biopsy (1.8%) and excisional biopsy (3.5%; p=0.02). The use of VABB for pre-operative diagnostic biopsy resulted in a marginal increase of re-excision rate or wider excision in patients undergoing BCT.

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The new findings appear in the journal Science Advances.

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Schizophrenia symptoms linked to features of brain's anatomy?

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The study, available online in the journal NeuroImage, will appear in print Oct. 15.

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